English Theoretical Grammar. Exam Answers

1. The foothold of TG. Countenance is a media of produceing and storing purposes as mirrorions of massiveity and exchanging them in the method of ethnical subserveence. It’s political by mark and inseparably aceed delay vulgaralty. It amplifys delay the fruit of communion. The apappearance stops of 3 magnitude: the phonological recurrentity (i. e. gauge recurrentity), the lexical recurrentity (set of naming media of appoint) and the cease recurrentity. The faithfulnesss of recurrentityic inlet to apappearance and its turnology were familiar in the pupilics of the 20th date aftercitedcited the notification of the effects by Beaudoin de Courtenay and Ferdinand de Saussure (they demonstrated the unlikeness discurrent abettingual synchrony and diachrony). The 1st peculiarity note of Phraseology is its immaterial bark (it immaterials itself from detail & embodied and institutes its governments & laws, prelude into motive solely vulgar notes of bunchs and control). The 2nd peculiarity note of Phraseology is uprightness (laws & categories of Phraseology reocean through ages delayout extensive deputes). The deep sight of Phraseology is the cease edifice of apappearance (i. e. the recurrentity of the laws of vocable changing & passage erection). There’re 2 molds of Grammar: Normative and Theoretical. Normative Phraseology is the assembly of governments of the consecrated appoint, manual of serviceable conquering the Grammar. It’s of a prescriptive bark. Theoretical Phraseology is the bifurcation of pupilics, which studies the produces of the control & their barkred in passages in balance immaterial way, giving the penetrating spectry of penny cease laws & tendencies; contemplates delayin into the edifice of magnitude of apappearance & endanger the contrivances of their dischargeing, i. e. the contrivance of the composeion of crys out of control in the method of reciteing. The aim of TG is to offer a or-laws spectry of a assured appoint. It’s of a picturesque bark. “The aim of TG is to offer a contingently spectry of its cease recurrentity, i. . to irritate or-lawsally and to elucidate its cease categories and examine the contrivances of cease composeion of crys out of control in the method of oration making. ” (????) 2. Essential apprehensions of morphology: morph, allomorph, morpheme, vocable-form. Traditionally, the apappearance of Phraseology is disconnectedd into two magnitude: Morphology and Syntax. Syntax embodys the passage & the magnitude of the passage; it establishs the examine of ways of association control & vocable co-operations in the passages. Morphology bargains delay produces of control. It embodys: magnitude of oration & their morphological categories. Morphological categories are reproduce-exhibited in vocable produces. It studies the recurrentity of produces of vocable depute. E. g. : the state & the estimate of the noun; peculiar, estimate, declare of the verb etc. I. P. Ivanova says that the vocable is the basic ace of morphology. The vocable - is a nomiinbred ace of appoint; it is produceed by morphemes; it enters the lexicon of apappearance as its ultimate fmaker (i. e. a fmaker alloticular into inferiorer segments as commendations its nomiinbred discharge); detailedly delay other nomiinbred aces the vocable is used for the composeion of the passage - a ace of inconstruction in the despatch method”. M. Y. Blokh). The morph is a minimal condeduction of gauges, enjoying assured purport and recurrently appears in some environments. The morph is a minimal purportful textual ace, the textual barkical of a morpheme, i. e. a morph is a multiplicity of a morpheme: e. g. the contradictory in- of the disclaiming precomplexion un- is its morph. The morpheme is the ultimate purportful abettingual ace built up from phonemes and used to establish control. It has purport, but its purport is immaterial, significative, not embodied, or nominative, as is that of the vocable. Morphemes organize the control; they do not reocean further the control. The morpheme is a bunch of one balance morphs aceed by the subserveing purport and parliamentlementary removal. Allomorphs are oration contradictorys of morphemes (the plural morpheme -(e)s [s], [z], [iz]). Classes of morphemes: 1. Free (root) morphemes. 2. Bound (affixes) morphemes. 3. Word-morphemes (e. g. to furnish up): a) lexico-cease morphemes: He gave up the purpose; b) cease morphemes: He has consecrated me the size. Roots frequented the embodied, “material” allot of the purport of the vocable and organize its accessible allot. Affixes mention, or transfigure the purport of the radicle. ay be of two barks: of lexical or cease bark. So, according to the semantic proof affixes are excite subseparated into lexical, or vocable-erection (derivational) affixes, which detailedly delay the radicle organize the parent of the vocable, and cease, or vocable-changing affixes (inflections), frequenteding unanalogous morphological categories, such as estimate, state, parliamentact and others. Delay the acceleration of lexical affixes new control are ascititious, or built; delay the acceleration of cease affixes the produce of the vocable is deputed. in-just-ice-s (prefix+ radicle+ suffix+ bend) Word-produce is the acey of the parent and bend: e. g. countenanced = countenance + ed. The other spectry for the vocable-produce is lemma. We may indicate lemmas in the appoint: e. g. He went his came (?? ???????? ?????). Came is a vocable-form. Types of vocable-construction (derivation). 1. Affixation: He margins short. 2. Gauge alternation: foot-feet, recite-spoke. 3. Suppletive composeion: good-natured-natured-natured-better-the best; go-went-gone. 4. Analytical vocable-formation: I am coming; She is quiescent. Short the so-denominated tenor of the analytical vocable-produce arises. Tshort are diverse inletes to the tenor. In tabulateify to reresolve this tenor we should defense the inquiry: How sundry subscription are tshort in English? : The leading inlet (the transmitted one) reproduce-exhibits the faithfulness of homonymy: should – modal: e. g. You should succeed to the tabulatemargin in era; should – Subj. : e. g. If I saw Helen tomorrow I should recite to her; should – Future-in-the-Past Tense: e. g. I told her dame that I should be successful to hold her short. The cooperate inlet is reproduce-exhibited by R. Quirk. According to Quirk analytical vocable-forms are those which embody solely own, do, be, all the intermission are modal verbs and turns, which are polysemantic. The third inlet is habitually aceed delay the spectry of ?????? ?????????? ??????????. He said: “We bargain delay the analytical vocable-produce if we own subsidiary + the verb delay bend”: auxVing: am going; is effecting. A produce-tabulate is a set of vocable-forms which misfit by the parents but own the subserveing bend. Tshort are 8 produce-classes in English: 1) Pl. noun – s; 2) State noun – s; 3) Pres. Simple, peculiar verb – s; 4) Degrees of parliament. adv. , adj. – er, est; 5) Gone-by componentary verb – ed; 6) Gone-by allot. verb – ed; 7) Presentation verb – ing; 8) Offer allot. verb– ing. Grammatical bark is organized by the resistance of at lowest two sets of produce-classes dissimilarityed to each other on the plea of some assured cease purport: e. g. size – sizes (plurality), the bark of estimate. The resistance delayin a bark is unmistakable. The resistance is a unconcealedized interassociation of abettingual produces by media of which a assured discharge is frequenteded. The coraapprove components (members) of the resistance must enjoy two molds of notes: vulgar notes and unanalogousial notes. Tshort are 3 deep leading molds of resistances: ) disowning; 2) recurrent; 3) coincident. By the estimate of portions dissimilarityed, resistances may be binary (two portions) and balance than binary (ternary, quaternary, etc. ). The binary disowning resistance is produceed by a dissimilarityive two of portions in which one portion is barkized by the intercourse of a assured unanalogousial note (“mark”), period the other portion is barkized by the deficiency of this note. In morphology the specimen is – the bark of estimate: size – sizes. Short the unanalogousial note of the resistance is “plurality”. The recurrent resistance is produceed by a dissimilarityive bunch of portions which are eminent not by the intercourse or deficiency of a note but by the grade of it. In morphology the specimen is – the bark of grades of parliamentarison of adjectives: purified – purifieder – the purifiedest. The coincident resistance is produceed by a dissimilarityive two or bunch in which the portions are eminent by unanalogous definitive notes. The plea of morphological coincident resistance is suppletivity, i. e. the apappearance of the cease purport y media of unanalogous radicles aceed in one and the subserveing paradigm, e. g parliamentact produces of the disorderly verbs (go//went). Cease categories: N (number, state gender(? )), V (the resistance of promiseinable, non- promiseinable produces; categories of peculiar, estimate, parliamentact, introduceation, opinion, declare), adj and adv. (degrees of parliamentarison). 3. Classes of control: the criteria of appoint. The control of appoint, depend on sundry produceal and semantic notes, are disconnectedd into ceasely bearing sets of tabulatees. The transmitted cease tabulatees of control are denominated “magnitude of oration”. In remainent pupilics, magnitude of oration are discernd on the plea of the three criteria: semantic; produceal; dischargeal. The semantic proof presupposes the evaluation of the unconcealedized purport, which is peculiarity of all the subsets of control constituting a consecrated allot of oration. The purport is implied as the “categorial purport of the allot of oration (of a tabulate). The produceal proof provides for the expatiation of the local bendal and springal (word-building) notes of all the lexemic subsets of a allot of oration. It bargains delay vocable-erection affixation exemplar and vocable-produce affixation (cease paradigm). The dischargeal proof concerns the syntactic role (function) of control in the passage illustrative of a allot of oration and removal (combinability). We can so recite environing these categorial barkizations of control as purport, produce, discharge. 4. The opportconcord adaptedties of vocable- tabulatees. Opportconcord is a set of aces which own a dominant undisjoined note which acees them and assured thorough notes recognize a diversity. A opportconcord inlet accelerations to exonerate sundry floating appearances in the transmitted apappearance of magnitude of oration. The bclassify lines discurrent the tabulatees of control are not rigid; instead of bclassify lines there’s a continuum of turbid intermediary phenomena, combining the notes of two or balance elder tabulatees of control. Opportconcord sect declares that in each tabulate there’s a yield-eart, the mass of its portions that enjoy all the peculiarity notes of the tabulate, and a circuit (ultimate allot), which embodys the control of adulterated bark, intermediary discurrent this tabulate and other tabulatees: e. g. tardiloquence hesitating scruple N G V The non-terminable produces of the verb (the Infinitive, the gerund, alloticiples 1 and 2) establish up the circuit of the vocal tabulate: they bankruptcy some of the notes of the verb, but enjoy some notes peculiarity to either nouns, or adjectives, or adverbs; there’re adverbs whose dischargeing is cease to that of conjunctions and prepositions (however, peaceful, so). The implementation of the opportconcord inlet to the removal of control in magnitude of oration was produceulated by the Russian pupils G. S. Schur and V. G. Admoni. 5. Groups of vocable- tabulatees. Classes of control are subseparated into: ) apprehensional; 2) dischargeal. Notional: nouns, adj. , adv. , pronouns, verbs, numerals. They are the control of a parliamentlete nomiinbred rate; intention discharges of naming and denoting inventions, phenomena, their massive adaptedties. Functional: prepositions, conjunctions, alloticles (just, yet, so), tenets, interjections, modal control, adlinks (illustrate declare: alarmed, collected), retort control (yes/no). They are the control of inripe nomiinbred rate, of conceptional (grammatical) rate. H. Sweet’s appoint: Sweet disconnectedd all the control into 2 bunchs: 1) declinables (nouns, adj. , verbs). ) indeclinables ( adv. , prep. , conj. , interjections). R. Quirk’s appoint: Quirk disconnectedd all the control into 2 bunchs: 1) notorious-tabulate items: N, V, adj. , adv. They can be thorough any era. 2) ceased- recurrentity items: tenets, plains, pronouns, prep. , conj. , interjections. They can’t be thorough. Ch. Fries’s apappearance (American Picturesque course): 50 hours of telephone conference. the inquiry of combinability/ valency (?????? ??????…, Woggles ugged diggles. ). Proof frames: 1) The co-operation was good-natured-natured-natured. (always)- aftercited a periods. 2) The clerk cherished the tax. (suddenly)- trans. ) The team went there. – intrans. All the control can lapse in the subserveing halting of the frames delayout affecting their structural purport can appertain to one and the subserveing tabulate. 4 tabulatees: Ns, Vs, adj. , adv. and as for the intermission, he distributes them into 15 dischargeal bunchs. 6. Classes of control in transmitted turnology. Traditionally, tabulatees of control are subseparated into: 1) apprehensional; 2) dischargeal. Notional: nouns, adj. , adv. , pronouns, verbs, numerals. They are the control of a parliamentlete nomiinbred rate; intention discharges of naming and denoting inventions, phenomena, their massive adaptedties. Functional: prepositions, conjunctions, alloticles (just, yet, so), tenets, interjections, modal control, adlinks (illustrate declare: alarmed, collected), retort control (yes/no). They are the control of inripe nomiinbred rate, of conceptional (grammatical) rate. Nonresidence of control: The method of nonresidence of control is denominated transmutation. Transcontrariety is a way of produceing new control from already penny ones by changing their paradigm, lexico-cease purport, combinforce & discharge. 4 molds of transmutation: 1) vocalization of nouns: a doctor- to doctor; ) substantivization of adjectives: a superb man- the superb; 3) adverbalization of nouns: abode- ???????? ????(???. ); 4) substantivization of verbs: to rend- a rend. Aftercited the war the dame seniored the slipren. 7. The syntactic inlet to dividing lexicon into tabulatees. Magnitude of oration are cease tabulatees of control eminent on the plea of 3 criteria: semantic, morphological and syntactic, i. e. purport, produce and discharge Syntactic adaptedties of a tabulate of control are combinforce of control ( removalal proof) and illustrative discharge in the passage. The three criteria of defining of defining cease tabulatees of control in English may be located in the aftercitedcited tabulateify: discharge, produce purport. Charles Frese disconnectedd all the control according to their dischargeal syntactic notes. He respectd that all the control which can possess the subserveing halting in the passage must appertain to the subserveing tabulate. He used the technique of contribute in the so denominated proof-frames. He used 3 deep proof-frames. For his materials Charles Fries chose tape-recorded gratuitous telephone conferences parliamentrichuckle environing 250,000 vocable entries (50 hours of dialogue) a)The co-operation was good-natured-natured-natured. the edifices purport is invention and its peculiarity at consecrated era) b)The clerk cherished the tax. (actor, enjoyment & invention acted upon) c)The team went there. (actor, enjoyment & apappearance of the enjoyment) Charles Fries used the technique of contribute: all the control that can depute for the vocable ‘concert’ delay no depute of structural syntactic purport would appertain to one tabulate. Uchuckle this technique Charles Frese reciteing out 4 tabulatees: noun, adjective, verb, adverb. As for the intermission of the control, he distributed them into 15 dischargeal bunchs by media of the subserveing preparation in thorough proof-frames. . The unconcealed peculiaritys of the noun. The Noun is considered to be the accessible shapeal ace of appoint. The notes of the noun are the aftercitedcited: 1)the categorial purport of be (“thingness”); 2)the deputeable produces of estimate and state; the local suffixal produces of spring (prefixes in English do not discern magnitude of oration as such); 3)the perceptible discharges in the passage (subject, sight, substantival predicative); prepositional kinsmen; alteration by an adjective Nouns illustrate inventions and other entities offered as bes (beauty, journey). The solely bark on nouns which is unconcealedly reliable is the bark of estimate. Sundry scholars respect that the apprehension of state applies to English pronouns, but not to nouns. Gender disconnectedions aren’t remarkable morphologically. The most peculiarity discharge of a noun in the passage is that of the material. The discharge of sight is so illustrative. Nouns are aapprove by transcontrariety delay verbs (an eye – to eye) and delay adjectives (inbred – a inbred) Nouns are barkized by some peculiar molds of combinabiliyty. Illustrative of noun is the prepositional combinforce delay another noun, a verb, an adj, an adv. an inlet to the lineage, to metamorphose globular the hole, red in multifariousion, far from its impression) Noun bunchs of the mold N+N (stone mole, car roof), repeatedly denominated stone-mole composeions, choose an intermediately halting discurrent nouns and noun turns. Multicomponental edifices are illustrative of newstractate and or-laws title: ambulance staff pay challenge. 9. Noun subclasses Nouns lapse into diverse subclasses which misfit as to their semantic and cease adaptedties: -vulgar – adapted (on the plea of mold of nomination) -concrete- immaterial counconsideration – uncounconsideration (on the plea of quantative edifice) -animate – spiritshort ( on the plea of for,, of restence) -indivisible –non peculiaral (ethnical – non-human) on the plea of peculiaral peculiarity Lexico-semantic contradictorys of nouns may appertain to unanalogous subclasses: tractate – a tractate. The tabulate of nouns can be vivid as a lexico-cease opportunity. Nouns denoting inventions organize the capital, fruit of the opportunity. Nouns denoting methodes, qualities, immaterial apprehensions are ultimate peripheral components of the opportunity. 10. The noun: the bark of estimate. The bark of estimate is frequenteded by the resistance of the plural produce of the noun to the fantastic produce of the noun. The cogent portion of this binary resistance is the plural. Its fruitful produceal note is the suffix (inflection) –(e)s [-z, -s, -iz] as offered in the produces dog-dogs, clock-clocks, box-boxes. The non-fruitful of frequenteding the estimate resistance are vowel interdepute (man-men, tooth-teeth), the insulting suffix –(e)n (ox-oxen, slip-children, equal-brethren), the interassociation of detail fantastic and plural suffixes in a specieless estimate of assumed nouns (phenomenon-phenomena, proof-criteria). In some states the plural ??? ??????? ?? ????, ?? ???, ??????? ? ????????)) ( The binary disowning resistance is produceed by a dissimilarityive two of portions in which one portion is barkized by the intercourse of a assured unanalogousial note (“mark” plural produce), period the other portion is barkized by the deficiency of this note (fantastic produce). The portion in which the note is offer is “marked”/ “strong”/“positive” portion, and is commsolely determined by the bark + (plus); the portion in which the note is lukewarm is “unmarked”/“weak”/“negative” portion, and is commsolely determined by the bark - (minus). orm of the noun is homonymous delay the fantastic produce (sheep, deer, fish). ” (Blokh M. Y. ). ) According to R. Quirk: We discern three deep estimate tabulatees of nouns: 1) SINGULAR INVARIABLE NOUNS, they own no plural, including noncount nouns (eg: utterance, gold), most adapted nouns (eg: Thomas, the Thames). 2) PLURAL INVARIABLE NOUNS, i. e. nouns appearring solely in the plural, eg. vulgaralty, scissors. Ex. These expiation own not yet been remunerated, own they? [expiation = ‘compensation in coin imposed by law for cauchuckle privation or injury’] 3) VARIABLE NOUNS, i. . nouns appearring delay either fantastic or plural estimate: The dog is…. The dogs are…. We discern two subclasses: a) REGULAR, delay plurals predicconsideration from the fantastic (relish dog); b) IRREGULAR, wshort the plural is not predicconsideration (eg. foot-feet, slip-children). In this departure bunch we experience a ample estimate of nouns delay outlandish plurals, eg. proof-criteria, decomposition-analyses. The detail plurals of these nouns own to be skilled as detail lexical aces. In sundry states wshort outlandish control are confused, it is accelerationful to perceive environing pluralization in the bearing appoints, detailly Latin and Greek. Thus, on the exemplar of decomposition-analyses we can compose the aftercitedcited plurals: axis-axes, plea-bases, crisis-crises. Mutation: The plural is produceed by MUTATION (a depute of vowel) in the aftercitedcited nouns: man-men, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, dowager-women, tooth-teeth, louse-lice The –en plural: The –en plural appears in three nouns: rother-brethren (delay contrariety as courteous as the –en end) slip-children ox-oxen Naught plural: Some nouns own the subserveing unwritten and written produce in twain fantastic and plural. Note the unlikeness short discurrent, on the one operative, fixed nouns, which are either fantastic (1) or plural (2), but not twain; an on the other operative, naught plural nouns which can be twain fantastic and plural (3, 3a): This utterance is too audible. (1) All the creation are grazing in the opportunity. (2) This sheep contemplates inferior. (3) All those sheep are ours. 3a) 11. The noun: the bark of state State is a morphological bark which has a disconjoined syntactic consciousness as it illustrates barkred of nouns towards other control in the passage. Languages of a synthetic edifice own a familiar state recurrentity. In English the solely state which is remarkable morphologically is the genitive (possessive state), the other “state purports” entity frequenteded by vocable tabulateify and prepositions. So, English nouns own a two-state recurrentity: the unremarkable vulgar state and the remarkable genitive state. Quirk recites environing 7 molds of genitive purports: 1)possessive genitive – my son’s spouse – my son has a spouse 2)internal genitive – the boy’s impression – the boy applied 3)extrinsic genitive – the extraction’s assistance - … assistances the extrrenewal 4)genitive of spring the miss’s romance – the miss told a romance 5)picturesque genitive a women’s school – a school for women 6)genitive of gauge and allotitive genitive ten days’s deficiency – the deficiency developeded 10days 7)apdefinitive genitive: the city of York – York is a city 12. Determiners; the discharges of the in determinable season. The indeterminable season frequentedes apappearance or referring-to tabulateifying unconcealedization of the referent which media that this season refers the sight illustrated to a assured tabulate. The tabulateifying purport of the indeterminable season can be perspicuously demonstrated by contribute delay tabulateifying control and turns e. g. a man- some man, some bark of a man The semantic unlikeness discurrent the identifying determinable season and the tabulateifying indeterminable season can be demonstrated by a dissimilarity proof e. g. he man- this very man (contrasted delay other sights of the subserveing tabulate) a man- a assured man not a dowager ( dissimilarityed delay other tabulatees of sights) 13. Determiners; the discharges of the determinable season. The determinable season frequentedes the identification or detailization of the referent of the noun. The sight that the noun illustrates is choosen as embodied and detail or positive. The identification purport of the determinable season can be perspicuously demonstrated in a contribute proof when “the” is deputed by so-denominated plain lexical determiners e. . the man- this man ( I sae yesterday) 14. Determiners; the discharges of the naught season. The naught season frequentedes despotic unconcealedization , immaterialion of the referent illustrated a noun. It renders the sight illustrated by the noun. It renders the purpose of the highest grade of unconcealedization and immaterialion . Delay uncounconsideration nouns the deficiency of the season frequentedes no solely immaterial unconcealedization buutt so tabulateifying unconcealedization, consequently the uncounconsideration nouns can not be used delay the indeterminable season. So, the unlikeness discurrent the tabulateifying deficiency of the season and the immaterial unconcealedization deficiency of the season delay an uncounconsideration noun can be symmetrical solely on the plea of their either the contribute or the introduction proofs: e. g. - I relish flowers ( in unconcealed). immaterial , despotic unconcealedization) -Tshort are flowers ( some, diverse) on the consideration. ( tabulateifying , referring-to unconcealedization) Sometimes balancesight of the season is used to preserve intervenience( in telegrams, sourcelines) 15. The unconcealed peculiaritys of the verb Grammatically the verb is the most parliamentlex allot of oration. This is due to the accessible role it acts in the apappearance of the predicative discharges of the passage; discharges establishing the association discurrent the halting spectryd in the cry and massiveity. 1. It’s distinct purport is method amplifying in era. 2. Vocable tabulate’s constituting affixes: -fy, -ize, -en, sub-, mis-, un- etc. 3. It has 7 cease categories: parliamentact, introduceation, era interrelation, declare, opinion, peculiar, estimate. 4. Removal (combinability): combines delay nouns & adverbs. 5. Syntactic discharge – predication. The deep removal of the verb is discurrent promiseinable verbs & non-finite. As for the promiseinable verbs, they own cease categories & the syntactic discharge is that of predication. ??? ???????? ?? ?????: (According to Blokh: The notes of the verb: 1. the categorial purport of the method (presented in the two eminent rotation of produces, respectively, as promiseinable method and non-terminable method); 2. the produces of the vocal categories of peculiar, estimate, parliamentact, introduceation, opinion, declare; the resistance of the promiseinable and non-terminable produces; 3. the discharge of the promiseinable declare for the promiseinable verb; the adulterated vocal - other than vocal discharges for the non-terminable verb. ) 16. Verb subclasses These are 3 deep appoints of the verb: morphological, semantic, dischargeal. 1. Morphological apappearance is the way the verb institutes up its basic produces According to their morphological edifice verbs are disconnectedd into: 1. Simple: to go, to choose, to decipher. 2. Sound-replacive : to food-to recover. 3. Stress-replacive: purport – tp purport 4. Expanded( delay the acceleration of suffixes and prefacees): civilize, balancesucceed 5. Composite( subserve to parliamentosite nouns): to loot 6. Phrasal: to own a steam, to furnish a countenance According to the way of produceing gone-by parliamentacts: recurrent-irrrecurrent 2. Lexical- morphological apappearance is installed on the implied cease purport I. Transitive-Inexplicit Explicit verbs can choose a frequented sight that is they frequented an enjoyment which passes on to a peculiar or invention frequentedly: to choose to furnish, to impel, to establish etc. Tshort are verbs which can be used either delay or delayout frequented sight: to decipher, to transcribe, to yield-ear etc. E. g. He can decipher & transcribe. (intransitive) Inexplicit verbs can’t choose a frequented sight. Short appertain: to halt, to doze, to laugh, to respect, to swim etc. E. g. They laughed tartly. Some verbs in unanalogous texture can be explicit & intransitive, such as: to notorious, to provoke, to depute, to droop etc. E. g. The door notorioused (intransitive). He notorioused the door (transitive). II. Termiinbred - Non-terminative. Termiinbred verbs illustrate enjoyments which cannot amplify further a assured intrinsic promise. The enjoyments illustrated by non-termiinbred verbs own no intrinsic articulation. E. g. promiseinative: to succeed, to choose, to halt up, to sit down; non-terminative: to feed, to devotion, to halt, to yield. III. The verbs can so be Stative -Dynamic 3. Syntactic appoint According to the mark of predication all verb can be: promiseinable and non- promiseinable According to syntagmatic adaptedties verbs can be: of ununiframe and optional valency. According to the way that some verbs own appointality or be destitute of it, they can be-of frequented and infrequented mark. 4. Professional apappearance is installed on the structural role of the verb in the passage. According to the syntactic discharge of the verb they are devided into apprehensional, semi-notional, subscription. I. Imaginary verbs are those which own a bountiful purport of their own & can be used delayout any joined control as a componentary declare. E. g. She told the faithfulness. II. Semi-imaginary verbs. They are used as a structural component in a syntactic ace. Short appertain: aftercited a period verbs, modal verbs, verb deputes, consummate verbs. 1. Aftercited a period verbs: to be, to beseem, to enlarge, to metamorphose etc. Perfect apprehensional verb may be used as a aftercited a period verb. Aftercited a period verbs own late their purport & are used in a parliamentound shapeal declare which habitually illustrates the declare or peculiarity of a peculiar or invention frequenteded by the material. Aftercited a period verbs own allotly late their springal embodied purport. Solely one aftercited a period verb has late its purport thoroughly. It is the verb to be. It can be entirely delay any allot of oration used as a predicative. According to their purport aftercited a period verbs are disconnectedd into 2 ample bunchs: Aftercited a period verbs of entity and resting: to be, to rest, to contemplate, to effluvium, to halt, to lie, to yield, to appear etc. Aftercited a period verbs of becoming: to beseem, to get, to enlarge, to go, to metamorphose etc. 2. Modal verbs Modal verbs habitually demonstration the reciteer’s organization either to the enjoyment or to the declare illustrated by the infinitive. The modal verbs are: can (could), may (might), must, should, would, ought, shall, procure, face, scarcity. The modal appoints are: to be + infinitive, to own + infinitive. 3. Verb-substitutes don’t spectry any enjoyment, but appearance to the enjoyment already mentioned in tabulateify to escape repletion: do/did. E. g. The miss scraped through the exam, & so did he. 4. Consummate verbs: do/did. E. g. Do be quite! I did perceive him. Subsidiary verbs are those which own late their purport & are used as produce control, thus having a cease discharge. They are used in analytical produces. E. g. to be, to do, to own, shall, procure, should, would 17. The promiseinable and non-terminable produces of the verb. The verb is habitually barkized as the most parliamentlex allot of oration, consequently it has balance vocable-changing categories than any other apprehensional allot of oration. It is deputed according to the categories of peculiar and estimate, parliamentact, introduceation, opinion and declare. Besides, each verb has a local set of non-terminable produces (the infinitive, the gerund, alloticiples I and II), opposedly denominated “verbals”, or “verbids”, divergent to the promiseinable produces of the verb, opposedly denominated “finites”; their resistance is harangueed as “the bark of finitude”. Such a distant rank of produces is deeply due to the purportance of the discharge that the verb acts in the passage: its pre-eminent discharge (and the solely discharge of its promiseinable produces) is the discharge of a declare – the accessible, organizing portion of the passage, frequenteding its severe predicative purports, or the barkred of the episode illustrated by the passage to specific massiveity. The non-terminable produces of the verbs, verbids, perproduce discharges peculiarity of other apprehensional magnitude of oration – nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, but peaceful, they can frequented allotial predication and portion-out a estimate of other purportant vocal notes delay the promiseinables. The infinitive has a dual, verb-mold and noun-type, valency. The infinitive has three gram. categories: the introduceationive bark of fruit (the resistance of Recurrent and Non- Recurrent produces), the introduceationive bark of retrospective coordination( the resistance of Ripe and Non- Perfectforms), the bark of opinion( the resistance of Quiescent and Non- Quiescent producees). The gerund, relish the infinitive, combines the adaptedties of the verb delay those of the noun and furnishs the method the vocal spectry. The gerund can be mitigated by a noun in the enjoyive state or its proexact equivalents and it can be used delay the prepositions. The combinforce of the gerund is dual; it has a adulterated, verb-type, noun-type, valency, Relish the infinitive, the gerund acts the syntactic discharges of the material, the sight, the predicative, the indication, the adverbial modifier. The gerund has 2 categories: introduceationive bark of retrospective coordination and the bark of opinion. The Offer alloticiple serves as a qualifying-processual spectry. It combines the adaptedties of the verb delay those of the adjective and adverb. It has 2 categories: the bark of retrospective coordination and the bark of opinion. The gone-by alloticiple combines the adaptedties of the verb delay those of the adjective. It furnishs some mark of capacity to the illustrated method. The gone-by Participle has no paradigmatic produces. Relish the offer alloticiple, the gone-by alloticiple is choice of making up semi-predicative composeions of parliamentlex sight, parliamentlex material, as courteous as despotic parliamentlexes. 18The verb: the bark of parliamentact The bark of parliamentact experiences unanalogous reproduce-exhibitations delay unanalogous scholars. In transmitted pupilics cease era is repeatedly reproduce-exhibited as a three-produce bark stoping of the “liner” gone-by, offer,and coming produces. The coming -in –the- gone-by does not experience its locate in the design installed on the liner faithfulness, this recurrentity is considered to be meagre, not envelope all abettingual postulates. Linguists institute up a new recurrentity of parliamentacts in tabulateify to experience a suiconsideration locate in them for coming -in –the- gone-by. Some of them disown the stubborn foothold of coming parliamentacts period others reject from the decomorganization coming -in –the- gone-by produces. In English tshort reocean 2 parliamentact categories. The 1-st bark- the bark of pre-eminent era- frequentedes a frequented retrospective evaluation of the era of the method illustrated, due to which the method holds an absolutive era peculiarity. This bark is installed upon the resistance of “the gone-by parliamentact” and “the offer parliamentact”, the gone-by parliamentact entity its cogent portion. The 2-nd parliamentact bark is the bark of “prospective” era, it is installed upon the resistance of “ aftercitedcited-action” and “non- aftercitedcited-action”the remarkable portion entity the coming parliamentact. The bark of field is referring-to by mark, it barkizes the enjoyment from the appearance of estimate of its interassociation delay some other enjoyment. The verb acquires 2 unanalogous coming produces: the coming of the offer and the coming of the gone-by. The coming of the gone-by is doubly cogent frequenteding the cogent portion of the bark of pre-eminent era and the bark of field. 19 The verb: the bark of introduceation The bark of introduceation reproduce-exhibited by 2 sets of produces in remainent English: non-recurrent (indefinite, componentary), recurrent (progressive). The distinct purport of the recurrent produce is elucidated as the purport of prolongation, period the indeterminable produce may be reproduce-exhibited as having no spective purport ( Ivanova), as a produce having a equivocal resigned(Vorontsova), as a produce streschuckle the establishedty the actance of enjoyment( Smirnitsky) Some pupil reproduce-exhibit the resistance of the ripe/ non-ripe produces as introduceationive (Jespersen,Ivanova,Vorontsova),others as resistance of parliamentact produces( Sweet, Korsakov). Smirnitsky proved that ripe and non-ripe establish up a bark of era interrelation. In eng. tshort reocean 2 introduceationive categories: the bark of fruit (installed on the resistance of recurrent and non- recurrent produces)and the bark of retrospective coordination( installed on resistance of ripe and non- ripe produces) The resistance of recurrent and non- recurrent produces can be neutralized and transponized . The resistance of ripe and non- ripe produces can endure solely the method of debileness, transstanding entity inappropriate to it. The cease bark of era-interassociation (of tabulateify, of mien) is reproduce-exhibited by binary resistance, organized by 2 produce tabulatees: ripe and non-perfect. The ripe is the remarkable portion of the resistance twain in produce and in purport. The non-ripe is a debile portion of the resistance twain in produce and in purport as a government. -/++ Non-perfectPerfect riteshas written wrotehad written procure transcribeprocure own written This bark demonstrations whether the enjoyment is estimateed as antecedent to other enjoyments or irrespective of other enjoyments. Linguists misfit as to the bark of the ripe appertains. Some turnologyians respect that it produces allot of the introduceation recurrentity (the resultive introduceation). Other pupils harangue ripe as appertaining to the parliamentacts. Smirnitsky was the leading to pull notice that the produces reoffer a cease bark which is unanalogous from the bark of parliamentact, though it is ceasely aceed delay it. E. g. She has succeed. antecedentity to the act of oration. She had succeed precedently he phoned balance. – antecedentity to the act of his phoning balance. Thus the ripe produces frequented antecedentity, inasmuch-as non-ripe lays the enjoyment unspecified. 20 The verb: the bark of opinion The cease bark of opinion is reproduce-exhibited by a binary disowning resistance organized by 2 from tabulatees, erratic & quiescent, in which quiescent opinion is the remarkable portion of the resistance twain in produce “to be +participle II” and in purport. Erratic opinion is a debile portion twain in produce & purport. As for the determination for the bark: 1. The bark demonstrations the association discurrent the material & the enjoyment. 2. It demonstrations the association discurrent the material and the sight of the enjoyment. -/++ ActivePassive invitesis invited invitedwas invited procure inviteprocure be invited Tshort are frequented, infrequented and prepositional quiescent. Some produces of the erratic opinion experience no correlative in the quiescent. It refers to the produces of the Coming Continuous, Coming Recurrent in the Gone-by and all the Ripe Recurrent parliamentacts. At sundry eras the aftercitedcited 3 opinions own been suggested in importation to the 2 already mentioned. (Ilyish) 1. Reflexive E. g. He courseed himself. . Middle E. g. The door ceased. 3. Reciprocal E. g. They kissed each other. 21 The verb: the bark of declare Declare is the cease bark of the verb thought the association of the enjoyment illustrated by the verb to massiveity from the reciteer appearance of estimate. In remainent English we discern 3 declares: expressive, urgent, subjunctive. E. g. He listens attentively. – expressive declare Listen attentively! – urgent declare He would own listened attentively if he had been animated. – subjunctive declare The bark of declare demonstrations the association of the nomiinbred resigned of the passage towards massiveity. By this bark the enjoyment can be offered as legitimate, non-real, enviable, recommended… 4 subjunctive produce-types: Pure Spective(subjunctive1) Stipulative Qualified Consideration,(subjunctive 2) desideration. inducementunlegitimate state Modal Spective Consective Qualified (subjunctive4) Consideration,(subjunctive 3) desideration. inducementunlegitimate condeduction 21 The tenor of subjunctive R. Quirk Era is the all, non-linguistic concept delay three removals: gone-by, offer, coming. Mood is frequenteded in English to a very junior degree by the subjunctive, as in: So be then! To a ample elder degree by gone-by parliamentact: If you tought me, I could lear guikly. By media of the modal subscription: It is strank that he should own left so forthcoming. Three categories of the subjunctive may be eminent: 1The mandative subjunctive in that- passage has solely one produce, the ignoble (V) tshort is bankruptcy of the recurrent expressive amity discurrent material and promiseinable verb in the 3rd peculiar fantastic offer, the offer and gone-by parliamentact are inappreciable. This subjunctive can be used delay any verb in inferior that-passage when the deep passage contains an apappearance of instruction, call-for. This sub-ve is used in produceal title, in short produceal: to-infinitive or should+ infinitive: It is unmistakable that perfect portion inproduce himself of these governments. (base) It is unmistakable that perfect portion should inproduce himself of these governments. It is unmistakable for perfect portion to inproduce himself of these governments. 2The produceulaic subjunctive stop of the ignoble (V)but is solely used in passage in assured set appoints which own to be as entires: God preserve the Queen! Come what may, we procure go forward Be that it may 3The subjunctive were is used in stateal and advantageous passages and in inferior passages aftercitedcited optative verb relish aim It appears as 1st and 3rd peculiar fantastic gone-by of the verb be ( was in short produceal title): If she were/was to do someinvention relish that He spoke to me as if I were/ was inaudible NOTE: solely were is accepconsideration in “As it were”; were is habitual in If I were you. The sect of turn (colligation, organization, typology of turns) The turn is a bunch ace produceed by any co-operation of 2 or balance apprehensional control which doesn’t organize a passage (Barkhudarov). The turn is a bunch ace produceed by any co-operation of 2 or balance control in which neither of the components can be transfigureed or deputed in its halting by a vocable of another tabulate or subtabulate (Ilyish, Burlakova). The cooperate determination is ample distantr, consequently it embodys not solely turns stoping of apprehensional control, but so prepositional turns, predicative turns delay promiseinable verbs. There’re 3 inletes to turns: )a turn is a co-operation of two apprehensiona control 2)a turn is any co-operation of control 3)a turn is a co-operation of control aceed by media of organization (on the morpho-semantic raze) and colligation (on the morpho-syntactic raze) Noun turn can discharge as: material, parliamentlement (she’s a alert dowager), an adverbial (the contiguous day they …), a prepositional parliamentlement ( the contiguous day they were walking parallel a calm route) Prepostional turn . It stops of a prestanding and a NP as a parliamentlement. It can discharge as adverbial in passages and can post-modify NP. Ex. Aftercited dinner, they firm … (adverbial) She gave him a glass of steep (qualifier of NP) Verb turns Perproduce a discharge of the predicator in a passage. It stops of one or balance verbs, we repeatedly use two or balance verbs as bark of rotation one aftercitedcited another. He doesn’t relish washing the dishes Adjective turn It can appear either as modifier in NPs (the contiguous day) or it can be aftercitedcited conceptional verbs relish be, beseem, appear. The specieless slip was very cowardly Adverb turns. Consisy of one one balance control delay an adverb forward, they discharge as adverbials. He ceased the door straightway The deep molds of turns According to the mold of syntactic security penny discurrent present returners, the deep molds are: 1)Subordinate habitually stop of the source, which is an stubborn component, and an addition, which is a relative returner. E. g. attached of deciphering; writing a epistle 2)Coordinate. The deep note is the subserveing syntactic discharge of their present returners. It may be proofed by the force of any returner to depute the entire turn E. g. shortlyer or later; equal and sisters 3)Predicative. onsist of 2 magnitude: materialival and predicatival. E. g. for you to go; for era permitting Syntagmatic barkred reocean discurrent the components linforthcoming tabulateifyed. That is discurrent phonemes, control etc. Linearity is the deep fmaker for syntagmatic barkred. Standing detailedly in rectirectistraight tabulateify, pupilic components can establish up a acey. But rectilinearity is not the solely deduce, on which all syntagmatic barkred are established. Combinational syntagmatic barkred can be subseparated into: 1. Collocational (lexico-semantic). 2. Colligational (grammatical). Collocational barkred are not of a cease bark, they're of lexico-semantic bark; the collocated components are located detailedly in the subserveing rectirectistraight preparation (to recite fluently). Colligational barkred are installed on the morphological & syntactical peculiarities of the vocable (,,to recite him"; ,,to say nothing"). 1. A three-raze inlet to syntax. Syntax – is the examine of the edifice of turns, passages, passages and harangue. It’s the material of examine of turnology. Syntax studies how turns and passages are composeed, i. e. the tabulateify of control, concord discurrent materials and verbs, etc. The deep sight of syntax is the passage. Passage is a abetting ace delay material/declare edifice or their transfigures ( Barkhudarov) Passage is a stint edifice used in oration acts and barkeized by diverse notes, the deep of which are predication and structural design (model) Pocheptsov. Passage – is an apappearance of a though or feeabetting by media of control, used in such produce and method as to consign the purport adapted ( Curme) The passage is thought-out on 3 raze: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the passage is harangueed as a recurrentity, i. e. parliamentlicated sight which stops of some components or syntactic haltings aceed by assured syntactic barkred. The deep apprehension of this decomorganization is the edifice of the passage ( an immaterial design of barkred discurrent lexical components constituting the passage) These are the designs of structural decomposition: transmitted, haltingal, IC, transfigureational, valence decomposition) The leading pupil to recite of semantic syntax was Ch. Fillmore. He spoke of syntactic halting of passage components and their pre-eminent/inferior discharge. A vocable supplys one or balance syntactic halting and by it acquires a assured dischargeal purport. Between the syntactic halting of a vocable and its dischargeal purport there’s an ununiframe association. A vocable acquires a assured dischargeal purport solely when it beseems a allot of a passage. Traditionally, syntactic examine focuses on the aftercitedcited aces: turn, componentary passage, passage parliamentosite passage, suprasyntactic ace. Pragmatic syntax. Pragmatics studies apappearance as a media of political interaction, The promise pragmatics was introduced by Ch,Pierce. Pragmatic syntaz bargains delay dischargeal passage perspective, oration acts, presuppositions, etc. Pragmatics studies apappearance as a media of political interaction. In pragmatics a passage is estimateed as a ace of despatch. Extralinguistic texture ( reciteer, yield-earer, halting) beseems very purportant. Pragmatic syntax is habitually associated delay the sect of oration acts, the thery of FSP, the sect of presuppositions. 2. Structural syntax: the components of the passage edifice (pure inlet). Syntax – is the examine of the edifice of turns, passages, passages and harangue. It’s the material of examine of turnology. Syntax studies how turns and passages are composeed, i. e. the tabulateify of control, concord discurrent materials and verbs, etc. The deep sight of syntax is the passage. Passage is a abetting ace delay material/declare edifice or their transfigures ( Barkhudarov) Passage is a stint edifice used in oration acts and barkeized by diverse notes, the deep of which are predication and structural design (model) Pocheptsov. Passage – is an apappearance of a though or feeabetting by media of control, used in such produce and method as to consign the purport adapted ( Curme) The passage is thought-out on 3 raze: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the passage is harangueed as a recurrentity, i. . a parliamentlicated sight which stops of some components or syntactic haltings aceed by assured syntactic barkred. The deep apprehension of this decomorganization is the edifice of the passage ( an immaterial design of barkred discurrent lexical components constituting the passage) These are the designs of structural decomposition: transmitted, haltingal, IC, transfigureational, valence decomposition) Traditionally, syntactic decomorganization of the passage is carried out in promises of passage portions, such as material, declare, sight, indication, adv modifier (of locate, era). The pre-eminent portions of the passage are material and declare, inasmuch-as sights, indications and adverbial modifiers are all cooperateary portions of the passage 4. Structural syntax: the basic (kernel) passage edifice. Ununiframe and optional passage components. Syntax – is the examine of the edifice of turns, passages, passages and harangue. It’s the material of examine of turnology. Syntax studies how turns and passages are composeed, i. e. the tabulateify of control, concord discurrent materials and verbs, etc. The deep sight of syntax is the passage. Sentence is a abetting ace delay material/declare edifice or their transfigures ( Barkhudarov) Passage is a stint edifice used in oration acts and barkeized by diverse notes, the deep of which are predication and structural design (model) Pocheptsov. Passage – is an apappearance of a though or feeabetting by media of control, used in such produce and method as to consign the purport adapted ( Curme) The passage is thought-out on 3 raze: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the passage is harangueed as a recurrentity, i. e. parliamentlicated sight which stops of some components or syntactic haltings aceed by assured syntactic barkred. The deep apprehension of this decomorganization is the edifice of the passage ( an immaterial design of barkred discurrent lexical components constituting the passage) These are the designs of structural decomposition: transmitted, haltingal, IC, transfigureational, valence decomposition) The fruit (minimum/basic) edifice is a edifice (sentence) stoping solely of ununiframe components. The balancesight of optional components does not decadence the passage structurally or semantically. Tshort is no unconcealed concord discurrent pupils environing which edifice should be considered fruit and which not. Short is the apappearance of basic passage edifices suggested by R. Quirk S – Subject, V- verb, A –adverb, C – parliamentlement, O- sight 1. SVA 2. SVC 3. SVO 4. SVOA 5. SVOC 6. SVOO7. SV1. Mary is in the lineage 2. Mary is bark (Mary is a protect) 3. Somebody caught the circle 4. I put the concoction on the consideration 5. We own proved him a colt (wrong) 6. She furnishs me high-priced offers 7. The slip laughed American lays ( Irtenieva) Verbs of be-type, own-type, beseem-type, furnish-type, choose-type, put-type, contemplate-at-mold NP- noun turn, V – verb, A – adj, D – adv, pred - prestanding 1. NP V is A1. The satirize is ludicrous 2. NP V is NP2. The man is an engineer 3. NP is prep. NP3. This size is of inteintermission 4. NP V is D4. Half the bunch is out 5. NP V own NP5. My nephew resembles his senior 6. NP V (become) A/NP6. She metamorphoses white/my messmate rested a steer 7. NP V intr (D)7. I run (perfect coming) 8. NP V choose NP (D)8. She took the tray off the consideration 9. NP V furnish NP NP (D)9. She gave me the size 10. NP V put NP D10. The visitor put the cleave in the hole 11. NP V contemconcoction at… NP (D)11. You widespread of the pur-pose A parliamentlement is a vocable (or control) adventitious to to a verb to parliamentlete the purport of the verb. 5. The tenor of one-portion passage (ellipsis). The cease organisation of one-portion passages has its own traits. In one-portion passages the material or the declare omitted as the state is delay ellipsis in passage-structure. One-portion passages own no disconjoined material and declare but one "main" solely instead. It appears sedate to establish disconnectedion discurrent a) shapeal or "naming" passages and b) infinitival (??????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ) passages. Nominal passages spectry a peculiar or invention The modal purport of appraisal in one-portion passages is aceed delay the use of noun determiners, the determinable season, in detail. Twain the season and the plain pronoun own short peculiar connotation. Consider the aftercitedcited specimens: The intermissionless, irrational, and yet so ethnical, feelingy soberness of the creature's eyes! (Galsworthy) That equal Wagner had decadenceed perfectthing; no music left, not any opinions to chuckle it. Ah! the supernatural chuckleers! (Galsworthy) "That dowager! " said Soames. (Galsworthy) Oh, the disgrace of this day! You'll be comin' abode delay me now. (Dreiser) If the source-vocable is a embodied noun the departure is very repeatedly used delayout trodden additions. Sentences of this mold are fairly vulgar. "What a picture", cried the ladies". "Oh, the ducks! Oh, the lambs! Oh, the sweets! Oh, the pets! " (Mansfield) Such tenderly coloured passages are repeatedly used delay interjections or some other control introducing or final the frequented oration. Exact passages may supervene one another in present series, thus making up a string of co-ordinated shapeal passages, as for instance: ... A blue-colored-colored subserve, a velour hat, some brown shoes, three twos of socks delay two holes in them, filthy shirts solely a scanty grayed at the cuffs, two sombre-and-white ties, six collars, not two new, some operativekerchiefs, two vests gentlely inarticulate, two twos of pants, and brown balancecoat delay a encircle and fitting two or three gauzy scanty stains. (Galsworthy) In Phraseology sizes one-portion passages are repeatedly referred to as latent, delay some items "understood" or "felt as privation". This, thus-far, must be choosen delay ample offence, since it is not frequently feasible to contribute the mischuckle allot. Modal purports are perceiven to be frequenteded by structural components of unanalogous pupilic razes. Indicating some bark of organization of the reciteer relating the massiveity of what is frequenteded in predication, modality is, in establishedty, a recurrent structural note of any passage. The subserveing is penny of one-portion passages. In these promises we discern: (a)"Classical" shapeal passages naming an sight of massiveity, asserting or disowning its entity. "A bbankruptcy ignorance", conquer. Cf. It is a bbankruptcy ignorance. (b)One-portion passages frequenteding command — stylistic alternatives of the Urgent Mood: "Silence dowager! " said Mr. Kenwigs, fiercely... "I won't be dormant", returned the protect. "Be dormant yourself, you wretch". (Dreiser) The two passages (Silence! = Be dormant! ) are corresponding in their cease resigned but misfit in title. (c)One-portion aim-sentences. The tender colouring of such aim passages can be loud by interjections, e. g. : Oh, the gauzy robes, the operativesome abodes, the watches, rings, pins that some boys sported; the dandies sundry youths of years were. (Dreiser) (d)One-portion passages of contingently modality: The eccentric and laagered mark of a margin wshort one was nut perceiven. The contemconcoction of it. Subsequent interpretation to her dame and sister mayhap. (Dreiser) Dizzily, I lauded my knuckshort uninterruptedly balance repeatedly on Gavin's buttons. Dazzling, lights, shouts, rockets, in the sky... Heley's succeedt, perhaps! (Cronin) A scandal! A feasible scandal! (Galsworthy) (e)One-portion stateal passages. State and condeduction are scant to each other, the produceer is frequenteded by a shapeal one- portion passage and the departure by a two-portion one. 6. Structural syntax: the haltingal design of the passage Syntax – is the examine of the edifice of turns, passages, passages and harangue. It’s the material of examine of turnology. Syntax studies how turns and passages are composeed, i. e. the tabulateify of control, concord discurrent materials and verbs, etc. The deep sight of syntax is the passage. Passage is a abetting ace delay material/declare edifice or their transfigures ( Barkhudarov) Passage is a stint edifice used in oration acts and barkeized by diverse notes, the deep of which are predication and structural design (model) Pocheptsov. Passage – is an apappearance of a though or feeabetting by media of control, used in such produce and method as to consign the purport adapted ( Curme) The passage is thought-out on 3 raze: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the passage is harangueed as a recurrentity, i. e. a parliamentlicated sight which stops of some components or syntactic haltings aceed by assured syntactic barkred. The deep apprehension of this decomorganization is the edifice of the passage ( an immaterial design of barkred discurrent lexical components constituting the passage) These are the designs of structural decomposition: transmitted, haltingal, IC, transfigureational, valence decomposition) The haltingal design reproduce-exhibits the edifice of the passage in promises of vocable tabulatees in the immaterialion from the purport of the embodied control that supply in its haltings. It reproduce-exhibits rectirectistraight barkred discurrent the control in a passage Thegirlsingsbeautifully DeterminerNoun(Verb)D (adverbial) It proves to be ambitious. The debileness of it lies in the establishedty that it reproduce-exhibits passages as strings of vocable tabulatees and doesn’t mirror the hierarchy of secret barkred of the passage components. 7. Structural syntax: the IC-design of the passage The IC design of the passage chooses into totality not solely the halting of passage components but so the hierarchy of their secret barkred. The contingently plea of IC design: )Of three molds of syntactic barkred (coordination, predication, submission) solely submission is periodical 2)The declare is contemplateed upon as the accessible allot of the passage 3)The decomorganization is installed on binary faithfulness, that is, the ace of decomorganization is a binary inferior turn which has two magnitude: the source and the addition. My messmate is deciphering a very shareing(adjunct) size (head) The aim of IC decomorganization is to experience the IC edifice of the passage. On each raze we bargain delay 2 components aceed by a inferior join which are then reduced into one new component in its semantic discharge to the source of the turn. The governments of this decrease are as supervenes D+A = AP (adj. turn) AP+N=NP (noun turn) V+N = VP NP+VP = passage 8 Structural syntax: the T-design of the passage. The transfigureational design chooses into totality not solely barkred discurrent the establishedtyors of the subserveing passage( as in IC design) but the barkred of the edifice of a consecrated passage to the edifice of other passages. 1. S1 > S2 passage into passage She relishs English. > She does relish English She is at abode > Is she at abode? 2. S > NP a passage is transfigureed into a NP Jane is the bunch chief. > Jane entity a bunch chief 3. S1 + S2 > S3 2 ultimate passage articulation into one I yield-eard him. +He was chuckleing. > I yield-eard him chuckleing. The tabulatees of the ultimate transfigureational steps or procedures: 1. Morphological deputes(tense, introduceation, opinion, declare) 2. dischargeal paraphrase( sundry dischargeal control) 3. contribute ( pronouns, contribute control) 4. deletion ( balancesight of some components) 5. haltingal preparations, interchange( depute into opposture vocable tabulateify) 6. intonational preparation The deep state of transfigureational association is the subserveing incontradictory propositional purport (naming assured mold of the fruit passage and transfigure. Structural syntax: the valence-design of the passage. L. Tesniere harangues the predicative verb of the cease capital of the passage . According to L. Tesniere the reciteer focuses upon the enjoyment in the halting which he describes. The verb must indicate the deep role in the parentma composeion: it illustrates the enjoyment as the capital of the halting, period the other portions the passage designate the alloticipants( actants) of the enjoyment and the notes ( indications) or the term wshort the enjoyment chooses locate. 1. the declare is the embryon of the passage . when we recite we indicate “morals dramas” in which we scarcity a assured estimate of “actors” depend on the verb ( furnish -3 creaters Susan gave Mike a chocolate) 3. the adaptedty of a verb is valency (possible parliamentatibility) 4. valence is the possible force of the verb to claim a assured estimate of actants in the acting a assured morals drama According to L. Tesniere a verb can own 4 molds of valence: V0 naught valence verbs ?????? V1 inexplicit verbs She is quiescent V2 explicit verbs I relish this film V3 diexplicit verbs He gave her a rose 1 The parliamentosite passage the passage as the basic acee of the syntax The passage (S) is considered to be parliamentosite if it has 2 and balance material-declare edifices. A returner of the parliamentosite passage is denominated a passage. Passage stubborn relative Tshort are parliamentlex and parliamentound passages. Composite passage Multifold Passage Mixture Passage submission coordination 12The parliamentosite passage: unconcealed peculiaritys. The parliamentound passage. A parliamentound passage is a passage which stops of 2 or balance passages coordinated delay each other. A passage is a allot of a passage which has a material and a declare of its own. The passages can be aceed syndetically or asyndetically. A parliamentlex passage stops of a faithfulness passage and one or balance inferior passages. Submission is a non-symmetrical association, possession discurrent two passages in such a way that one is a returner or allot of the other. Compare the coordination in [I relish John] and [John relishs me] [independent] [independent] delay the submission in I relish John [consequently John relishs me] ] stubborn relative (subordinate) 13The parliamentlex passage: the shapeal passages. (S) NP AP DP Exact passages Trodden passages Adverbial passages Classifying relative passages by discharge: 1) According to tabulatees of control they may depute in syntactic halting inferior passages are disconnectedd into: Exact (that-clauses, wh-interrogative passages, etc. ): I perceive that you balance courteous. / I can’t subordinatestand what they omission delay your address. 14. The parliamentlex passage: the adverbial passages. The passage (S) is considered to be parliamentosite if it has 2 and balance material-declare edifices. A returner of the parliamentosite passage is denominated a passage. Passage stubborn relative Tshort are parliamentlex and parliamentound passages. A parliamentlex passage stops of a pre-eminent passage and 1 or balance inferior passages. [I relish John [consequently John relishs me] ] stubborn relative (subordinate) The parliamentlex passages are disconnectedd into bunchs according to tabulatees of control they may depute in syntactic halting. (S) NP AP DP Nominal passages Trodden passages Adverbial passages Classifying relative passages by discharge: 1) According to tabulatees of control they may depute in syntactic halting adverbial passages are disconnectedd into: - parliamentarative passages: He contemplates as if he is going to be distempered. - distribution and preference passages: The harder he effected, the happier he felt. / Rather than a new car, he bought a TV-set. - criticise passages: Food is inexpensive in Germany, I’d respect. / To be upright, I’d never relishd him. / What is balance, he has late perfectinvention he had. - era passages: When I developed saw you, you feedd in Moscow. locate passages: They went wherever they could experience effect. - stateal passages: He must be mendacious if he told you that. - concession: Although I enjoyed myself, I was joyful to succeed abode. - account (reason): I lent him the coin consequently he scarcityed it. - purpose: I left forthcoming to clutch the course. - result: We pur-poseted sundry pur-posets, so that the garden shortly contemplateed gentle. - method: Please do it as I instructed. 2) According to syntactic halting they supply, adverbial passages are disconnectedd into: - addition: When we coalesce, I shall expound perfectthing. - disjunct: To be upright, I’ve never relishd him. conjunct: What is balance, he has late the messmates he has. 15. Multifold noun turns delay trodden passages as modifiers. The parliamentlex passages are disconnectedd into bunchs according to tabulatees of control they may depute in syntactic halting. (S) NP AP DP Exact passages Trodden passages Adverbial passages Trodden passages: - intermissionrictive: Don’t you detest vulgaralty who own no bark? - picturesque: But his lips that were twisted in a tart countenance twitched. - appositive: There’re 2 very good-natured-natured-natured-natured deduces why she should subordinate no term be his spouse. 16. The parliamentosite passage: promiseinable, non-terminable and verbshort passages. The passage (S) is considered to be parliamentosite if it has 2 and balance material-declare edifices. The passage is a syntactic edifice built by the deep component the V (terminable or non-terminable produce) delay its syntactic valencies legitimateized. Analyzing passages by structural mold, we enter at three deep tabulatees: promiseinable, non-terminable and verbshort passages. Terminable passage: a passage whose V component is a promiseinable verb turn (showing parliamentact, declare, introduceation and opinion). The promiseinable passage frequently contains a material as courteous as a declare, bar in the state of commands and ellipsis. Non-terminable passages: a passage whose V component is a non-terminable verb turn (not demonstrationing parliamentact or declare, but peaceful choice of indicating introduceation and opinion). Non-terminable passages can be composeed delayout or delay a material, i. e. delay material or materialless: 1. The Infinitive passages: The best invention would be to recite perfectbody. (subjectless) The best invention would be for you to recite perfectbody. (delay its own material) 3. – ing-produce passages: Living the margin he tripped balance the board. (subjectless) Her aunt having left the margin, they kissed passionately. (delay its own material) 4. Non-terminable passages delay Participle II: Covered delay indistinctness I left the margin. (subjectles) The job high we left the margin. (delay its own material) 5. Verbshort passage: a passage containing no verb component: He went out, a shotgun in operative. 17. SEMANTIC SYNTAX: SENTENCE ELEMENTS SEMANTICALLY CONSIDERED (the pre-eminent discharges). Syntax is the examine of the edifice of turns, passages, passages and harangue. It studies how turns and passages are composeed; e. g. the vocable tabulateify, a